vegassports-odds.com
vegassports-odds.com May 26, 2018


Ravens parallel great apes in flexible planning for tool-use and bartering

15 July 2017, 08:23 | Kevin Scott

Raven at Yellowstone National Park | Yellowstone National Park Flickr

Raven at Yellowstone National Park |         Yellowstone National Park  Flickr

All the results are present in a study in the journal Nature.

How'd they get so smart?

The new findings show that planning for future events may have evolved in these birds after they and mammals shared a common ancestor over 300 million years ago. This is considered to be the first ever study to be created to find out if any other animal can plan events that are going to be happening in the future as this can be immensely helpful in discovering how different species evolve to share the same intelligence brand. Their lives are a flow of action and reaction, making it hard, if not impossible, to think complex scenarios through. Then, they performed the same tests of great apes.

Some corvids, a family of birds that includes ravens, cache food, which is an ability to plan beyond the current moment.

Cognitive scientists from Lund University, Sweden, spent hours watching the corvids to determine that they are able to think ahead to future scenarios. In order for the ravens to receive their promised reward, they needed to stash their chosen token away to use later.

Therefore, it seems that evolution taught ravens to make plans. Fifteen minutes later, the box would show up again.

Juno the raven working the puzzle box. Almost every raven chose the correct, apparatus-opening tool; upon being presented with the box 15 minutes later, they used the tool to open it, with a success rate of 86 percent. In addition, the ravens have their own language - they don't just give signals of danger, as do most birds, but also able to communicate with each other. In the first test the bird, after picking the tool, had to wait 15 minutes to access the tube to drop the object down and get the treat.

Spot Gold Higher, June CPI Flat
Data from the Commerce Department showed that retail sales fell by 0.2% in June after edging down by a revised 0.1% in May. Also falling were prices for used cars and trucks, down 0.7% in the month and 4.3% over the a year ago .

Manchester United failed in Morata bid, Mourinho confirms
Chelsea's board are refusing to meet Real Madrid's asking price for Alvaro Morata and that has plunged their chase for the forward into serious doubt.

Three terrorists killed in Tral area of J&K Pulwama, encounter continues
Jammu and Kashmir chief minister Mehbooba Mufti met Home Minister Rajnath Singh in Delhi today. Mohammad Hassan Shah, claimed that the slain militants caused "huge damage" to the forces.

Taking the exercise further, the researchers extended the waiting time to 17 hours.

In a corollary to both of these tests, the ravens also showed the ability to select a token which they could later use to barter for a reward, which they did with 78 per cent proficiency.

The ravens were as good with tools as apes, and in some ways better at bartering, outperforming orangutans, bonobos and chimpanzees, according to the study.

And an average of 11 out of 14 times - just less than 80% of the time - the ravens chose the tool rather than one of the distractions. The Raven brain is one of the largest among birds.

The ravens also exercised self-control by avoiding lesser rewards in order to receive better future rewards.

Researchers find that common ravens have the capability to plan ahead of time, much like apes and human children.

"This paper is significant because it shows that ravens can indeed plan into the near future (i.e. overnight) based on behavioural principles, and not based on simple trial-and-error learning", said Andreas Nieder, a neuroscientist at the University of Tuebingen who wasn't involved in the study, in an interview with Gizmodo. It has been argued that planning in foraging and natural tasks is not the same as planning in a more general way. But, he says, "We don't know if they are social like that because they're clever, or the other way around".



Other News

Trending Now

ZTE launches a $99 phone with a fingerprint sensor
Below the rear camera is a fingerprint reader , and below the front camera is a 5.5-inch 1280×720 display. Mostly it has nothing you can flaunt, except a fingerprint scanner maybe.

Top 5 memorable moments at IIFA Rocks 2017
Shahid tweeted: "IIFA Rocks". "Thank you for getting wet and sitting for this", said Rahman in the middle of his performance. On Friday evening, a few hours after the show began, it was only Rahman who took the stage for his culminating performance.

Venus seeks sixth Wimbledon title
Her chances of Wimbledon glory multiplied when the only other former champion, Petra Kvitova , crashed out in the second round. Last meeting: Muguruza won 6-2, 3-6, 6-2, quarter-finals, 2017 Rome Masters. "I'm not sure exactly what she's doing".

Nevada regulators mull expedited marijuana supply licensing
But that changed when recreational sales began July 1 and anyone transporting pot was required to obtain a distribution license. High demand for marijuana in Nevada is forcing officials to declare a state of emergency as dispensaries are running on fumes.